SUA SI CHINA: RAZBOI SAU PACE ? - 8 | publicatii - Politica La Est
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SUA SI CHINA: RAZBOI SAU PACE ? - 8

   De la ‘capcana lui Tucidide’ la “era Covid-19”
    
                            Mihail E. Ionescu 

« Je lis et j’entends que le monde d’après n’aurait rien à voir avec le monde d’avant. Je partage ce vœu, mais c’est de l’ordre de la prédiction. Ma crainte, c’est que le monde d’après ressemble furieusement au monde d’avant, mais en pire. »
Ministrul de Externe al Frantei, Jean-Yves Le Drian
“Le Monde”, Avril 20, 2020

“ European solidarity is crumbling in the       face of the pandemic and a US-China trade war is    meaningless given American dependence on China’s medical supplies. The West needs to see the world as it really is and embrace cooperation with China”

    Poate cititorul se intreaba : de ce atat de mult accent in analiza noastra  pe aceasta reconstituire ( oarecum )  minutioasa a “ razboiului tarifar” declansat intre SUA si China in martie 2018?
 
    Raspunsul este simplu. Fara sa intelegem ce s-a intamplat atunci ,  din martie 2018 pana inanuarie 2020 , cand s-a incheiat un prim acord in acest razboi comercial intre cele doua superputeri ( pentru ca aceasta competitie continua sub aceasta forma si altele ) , nu vom percepe  defel in ce lume suntem azi si vom fi maine. Lumea de azi este un orbi  ‘lockdown’ aproape universal in Vest ca urmare a Covid-19, pentru prima oara manifestat la Wuhan in China in decembrie 2019, apoi extins cu rapiditate global, devenit pandemie.

    Sub incidenta acestui fapt – un virus  necunoscut , care mai intai a lovit  la Wuhan  si devenit pandemie- lumea de maine nu va mai fi ca aceea in care ne-am aflat acum doua-trei luni, ci cu totul alta. In intelegerea ( desigur foarte informata comparativ cu a publicului larg )  ministrului de Externe al Frantei, J-Y Le Drian , “lumea de dupa va semana in mod furios cu cea  dinainte , dar in rau” . Sau cum tot acelasi om politic a declarat in  interviul sau acordat ziarului  “ Le Monde” la 20 aprilie 2020  , de unde am extras citatul din motto: 
@JY_LeDrian
 « Ma crainte, c’est que le monde d’après ressemble furieusement au monde d’avant, mais en pire. Il me semble que nous assistons à une amplification des fractures qui minent l’ordre international depuis des années. »

 
12:20 PM · Apr 20, 2020·  

    Asadar, “ asistam la o amplificare a fracturilor care au afectat  ordinea internationala de ani buni ”.  Iar in a descifra in ce mod aceasta inrautatire a faliilor geopolitice  déjà existente va avea impact asupra lumii de maine, de dupa pandemia  Cov-19 , trebuie sa stim care sunt aceste fracture/ fisuri . Intre ele cea mai importanta este desigur confruntarea dintre cele doua superputeri- SUA si China- a carei prima incrucisare de arme  de proportii a fost, premegartor crizei Covid 19 ( am putea spune ca este o continuare directa, dar nu avem probe, dar oricum sfarsitul unui eveniment s-a suprapus cu inceputul celuilalt ) ,  in cadrul “ razboiului comercial” . Iata cum descrie seful diplomatiei franceze ce are loc azi in lumea pandemiei Covid 19: “Pandemia este continuarea, prin alte mijloace, a luptei între puteri. Întâi, este deja vechea punere  in cauza  a multilateralismului. Jucătorii importanți se retrag, așa cum ilustrează decizia americană de a-și suspenda contribuția la Organizația Mondială a Sănătății [OMS], atunci când este singura organizație universală capabilă să lupte împotriva pandemiei. Alții se inghesuie sa ocupe locurile lasate libere”  . Care sunt acesti “ altii’ din relatarea ministrului francez vom incerca sa aflam , desi cu siguranta ca Le Drian putea continua  pentru ca stie mai multe. Sunt asadar si “ altii” in afara Chinei .
    
    Raspunsul la cea de a doua intrebare pusa initial de noi in aceasta analiza- de ce  s-au conexat aceste doua dosare , cel nuclear nord-coreean si c el comercial  chino-american  – l-am conturat a fi in zona relatiilor bilaterale americano-chineze care se poate descrie astfel:  rezistenta Chinei in fata asaltului  majorarii practic insuportabila a tarifelor de import  declansat de SUA in martie 2018. Deopotriva aceasta zona se poate descrie  ca fiind in sfera strategiei indirecte  aplicate  de China pentru a intarzia sau lipsi de agresivitate  cat mai mult ofensiva americana ( alaturi de reclamatii  catre OMS ( Oragnizatia Mondiala a Comertului )   probabil crearea de dificultati SUA pe alte fronturi , cum ar fi  in lupta impotriva terorismului in Afganistan, Irak sau Siria si Iran ) . Intarzierea/ calmarea  urmarita la Beijing prin aceasta strategie indirecta trebuie  inteleasa in sensul de a astepta rezultatul  alegerilor prezidentiale din SUA in noiembrie 2020 , asadar eventual  inlocuirea lui Trump  , nutrindu-de  speranta ca succesorul sau- Biden , de exemplu, legat de interese economice in China- va schimba politica  in relatia bilaterala. Este una din explicatiile pentru care China s-a declarat campion al globalizarii ( vezi discursul lui Xi la Davos- 2017, in care potrivit evaluarilor aproape unanime ale mediei “ /he/  lent support to the globalist agenda, positioning China as an increasingly open country as the US moved toward protectionism. “  )  . Deopotriva, intarzierea – prin strategia indirecta mentionata si prin prelungirea negocierilor , cum vom vedea- era benefica pentru China pentru ca permitea  capitalizarea  in timpul astfel castigat  a  vastelor  avantaje déjà obtinute anterior o data devenita cea dintai economie globala ca volum si a putea rezista asaltului unui al doilea mandat Trump sau continuitatii politicii acestuia de noua administratie de la Casa Alba. 

    Stim acum ca , in fata noii crize a Covid-19, ‘razboiul tarifar si- pierdut din importanta , desi nu a disparut defel de pe agenda politico-bilaterala . Chinezii afirma chiar – asa cum  se vede din al doilea motto atasat acestui episod – ca ‘razboiul tarifar’ si-a pierdut relevanta , iar cooperarea este necesara mai mult ca oricand, la nivel global , pentru a face fata pandemiei  .  Referinta la dependenta  in domeniul medicamentelor  a SUA de China, inserata in articolul citat ca un argument pentru colaborare, poate fi desigur interpetata si ca o amenintare indirecta  in fata eventualelor sanctiuni pe care SUA ar vrea sa le aplice Chinei. O data cu debutul pandemiei Covid-19  SUA a elaborat o naratiune in media si actiune diplomatica,  de condamnare a Chinei  pentru gestionarea neadecvata a inceputurilor  acesteia  in decembrie2019- ianuarie 2020 , care a determinat prin consecinte o prabusire a economiei globale fara precedent . Dar despre aceste lucruri  vom vorbi mai tarziu. Deocamdata sa consemnam ce  spune articolul chinez citat  in motto in legatura cu lipsa de insemnatate a ‘ razboiului tarifar ‘ incheiat printr-un armistitiu la 20 ianuarie 2020 : “The West is not in decay. It is falling apart. The novel coronavirus is a further blow to a West already at the nadir of its self-confidence since the 18th century. There is no leadership. The self-claimed ‘wartime president’ of the United States has neither the interest nor the ability to lead. ‘American first’ means Europe alone.In Europe, each country is fighting for its own survival. Beggar-thy-neighbour policies  are common. When Italy tried to invoke a European Union mechanism to share medical supplies, no member state helped.”   



     Pe de alta parte in China  –spune autorul chinez al analizei – este o alta situatie, pe care o descrie transant si arogant: “  In the East, Beijing’s way  of taming Covid-19 looked like the largest performance art in history: locking down a city of 10 million people, building two hospitals that could accommodate 2,000 people in 10 days, and pressing pause on the second-largest economy in the world. It worked, but at an astronomical cost. Now, it is being emulated to varying degrees around the world.“  Vom vedea la locul potrivit , de ce este aceasta naratiune  pregnanta in discursul Beijingului si ce solutie politica intrevede pentru viitor.  De retinut acum ca- se afirma- Vestul este in cursul destramarii  globale, iar China este imitata pretutindeni pentru performanta sa istorica recenta in combaterea crizei coronovirusului.

    Contrar autorului chinez, noi credem ca a evalua modul in care s-a desfasurat ‘razboiul tarifar’ in 2019 este foarte  important. Practic, armistitiul intervenit in ianuarie 2020  in acest veritabil ‘razboi comercial’  purtat pe marginea rupturii premergatoare inclestarii directe  a fost precedat de poticneli serioase in relatiile bilaterale, iar Beijingul a resimtit, cum vedea, puternic , din punct de vedere economic, impactul noilor tarife americane asupra importurilor de marfuri chinezesti 

    Ambele dosare pareau ‘ inghetate ‘  catre sfarsitul anului 2018. Pe de o parte, in cel ‘nuclear nord-coreean’ Pyongyang-ul anunta ca va reconsidera propria pozitie , daca  nu intervine o schimbare in cursul politicii SUA  fata de Coreea de Nord.  Iar in ce priveste  ‘razboiul tarifar’, urmare a unei intelegeri dintre cei doi lideri, Trump si Xi, la reuniunea G-20 de la Buenos Aires ( 1 decembrie 2018 ) , s-a stabilit un armistitiu de 90 de zile tocmai pentru a elimina, pe cat posibil, tensiunile intervenite.

    Cascada  de noi tarife asupra  marfurilor chinezesti importate in SUA lansata dupa iunie 2018 de presedintele Trump , prezentata anterior , a intalnit o puternica rezistenta din partea Chinei. Bejingul a realizat dimensiunile solicitarilor americane si slaba posibilitate proprie de reactie pe masura- anume a provoca aceleasi pierderi economiei americane sau mai mari prin ridicarea tarifelor importurilor din SUA-, astfel incat negocierile in domeniu devenisera foarte  tensionate. Trump si Xi au fost de acord cu aceasta intrerupere de 90 de zile tocmai pentru a crea conditiile aplatizarii acestor tensiuni si unei reveniri reciproc  benefice la negocieri .

    Doar ca in cursul acestui armistitiu au avut loc intense consultari la nivel inalt intre China si Coreea de Nord, ceea  ce s-a vazut imediat in decizia Pyongyang-ului de a solicita un nou summit Trump-Kim. Iata aceasta evolutie, care reliefeaza din nou legatura dintre cele doua dosare aici in discutie: 
“December 6, 2018: North Korean Foreign Minister Ri Yong Ho travels to China for a three-day visit to meet with Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi to discuss their countries' relations, the Korean situation and other issues of mutual concern, and reportedly to discuss a summit between North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and Chinese President Xi Jinping.
January 1, 2019: Kim Jong Un delivers his annual New Years Address, stating that he is willing to meet U.S. President Donald Trump at ‘anytime’ and committing ‘that we would neither make and test nuclear weapons any longer nor use and proliferate them,’ although it is unclear what Kim means by promising not to ‘make’ nuclear weapons. 
January 7-9, 2019: Kim Jong Un travels to Beijing for his fourth summit with Chinese President Xi Jinping. North Korean state news KCNA reports that Kim and Xi discussed the ‘denuclearization process’  and that Xi accepted an invitation to visit North Korea ‘at a convenient time.’/…/
January 18, 2019: Top North Korean diplomat Kim Yong Chol travels to Washington, D.C. and meets with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and U.S. President Donald Trump. Kim Yong Chol meets with Trump for over 90 minutes. Following the meeting, the White House announces that the second summit between Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un will take place at the end of February at a place to be announced at a later date”  
    Asadar, pe acest front se intrevedeau  perspective incurajatoare pentru un nou summit Trump-Kim, la initiative partii nord-coreene ,  si posibilitatea unui  avans in atingerea obiectivului urmarit de americani, denuclearizarea statului comunist. Concomitent insa , pe celalalt front al confruntarii  comerciale americano-chineze , se vadeste dorinta  Chinei de a prelungi termenul reluarii   negocierilor cu SUA pe dosarul  tarifelor:
“ January 30-31, 2019 –The US and China hold in-person talks in Washington D.C., with Liu He leading China’s trade delegation. During the negotiations, China offers to buy five million tons of US soybeans. Trump announces that he will meet with Xi in-person in February.
February 7, 2019 – Trump says that he will not meet with Xi in-person before the tariff ceasefire expires on March 1, 2019. Previously, on January 31, Trump said that he would meet with Xi in-person in February.
February 11-15, 2019 –The US and China hold trade talks in Beijing. On Friday, February 15, Xi meets with the top negotiators from the US, in what is widely interpreted as a goodwill gesture. At the end of negotiations, the US and China continue to have differences, but agree to keep talking in Washington the following week.
February 21-24, 2019 –On Thursday, February 21, US and Chinese negotiators resume trade talks in Washington. The day after, on Friday, February 22, Trump meets with Liu He in front of the media, expressing optimism about a trade deal. On Sunday, February 24, Trump announces that he will extend the March 1 trade deal truce deadline, citing progress in trade talks. Trump does not give a concrete date for a new deadline, but expresses hope that Xi will visit Trump’s Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida in March to finalize a trade deal.
March 28-29, 2019 – /…/US and Chinese negotiators resume trade talks in Beijing on Thursday, March 28 and Friday, March 29 after not meeting face-to-face for nearly one month. The month-long break was partly due to the two sessions meetings held in early March, which were China’s biggest political meetings of the year. Officials call the trade talks constructive, with an enforcement mechanism to monitor China’s commitment to trade concessions reportedly  a sticking point.”  

    Sugestia unui  nou summit SUA -Coreea de Nord , transmisa la Washington  la 18 ianuarie a fost insotita , cum se vede de o presiune a  Chinei pentru a se relua cat mai tarziu  negocierile pe dosarul tarifelor .  Este de banuit ca astfel Beijingul vroia sa sugereze ca tensiunile dintre cele doua parti erau de acum risipite astfel ca negocierile bilaterale mai puteau astepta .  Iar ceea ce a obtinut a fost o prelungire cu o luna armistitiului  convenit la 1 decembrie. De mentionat ca partea Americana a avertizat ca prelungeste armisitiul cu conditia finalizarii unui accord  o data ce acesta era incheiat .   Este de admis ca speranta Beijingului era ca , aratand bunavointa pentru reluarea negocierilor bilaterale, o data ce Trump acceptase intalnirea cu liderul nord-coreean  va evita continuarea  presiunilor devenite foarte dure ale SUA si deopotriva nu va accede la un acord final .

    La Hanoi, in Viertnam a avut loc in zilele de 27 si 28 februarie 2019 al doilea summit intre liderii SUA si Coreei de Nord. Chestiunea principala discutata a fost ridicarea sanctiunilor asupra statului communist, ceea ce SUA nu accepta decat in schimbul  denuclearizarii totale. Pyong yang-ul nu a oferit decat o denuclearizare ‘partiala’ , iar Trump nu a acceptat . Cronologia chineza citata pana acum mentioneaza ca “ North Korean Minister of Foreign Affairs Ri Yong Ho later delivers a statement at a press conference stating that North Korea had requested the partial removal of sanctions in exchange for a permanent halt of nuclear and ballistic missile testing and the full and verifiable dismantlement of the facilities at the Yongbyon nuclear complex. The North Korean state newspaper Pyongyang Times welcomes the ‘constructive and candid exchange of opinions’  at the summit./…/”  

    Dosarul nord- coreean a inregistrat, consecinta a acestui partial esec la summit-ul de la Hanoi , in lunile martie si aprilie o inrautatire , in sensul ca SUA a amorsat procesul de amplificare a sanctiunilor  si a condamnat si incercarile statului communist de a le evita prin diverse procedee. La 10 -11 aprilie 2019,  liderul Coreei de Sud , Moon Jae-in , s-a intalnit la  Washington cu presedintele Trump. Cronologia utilizata de noi  consemneaza : “ Trump reiterates his preference for a ‘big deal’ with North Korea to ‘get rid of the nuclear weapons’ in comments to press, but keeps the door open for ‘various small deals’  that could happen. Trump also says that he would support joint economic projects between the two Koreas at the right time, but that now is not that time and that sanctions would ‘remain in place’ until denuclearization is complete.”  

    Presedintele Trump  a socotit insa necesar sa mentina deshisa  legatura cu Kim, chiar in aceste conditii. Astfel, in doua notatii pe contul sau de twitter,  la o zi dupa incheiera vizitei la Washinton a presedintelui  Coreei de Sud la Washington , Donald Traump a scris:
“@realDonaldTrump
I agree with Kim Jong Un of North Korea that our personal relationship remains very good, perhaps the term excellent would be even more accurate, and that a third Summit would be good in that we fully understand where we each stand. North Korea has tremendous potential for.......
2:54 PM · Apr 13, 2019”  
“@realDonaldTrump
....extraordinary growth, economic success and riches under the leadership of Chairman Kim. I look forward to the day, which could be soon, when Nuclear Weapons and Sanctions can be removed, and then watching North Korea become one of the most successful nations of the World!
3:04 PM · Apr 13, 2019·”   

Concluzia pe care o desprindem , in urma informatiilor de media disponibile , dar si conform ‘regulii epilogului’, care nu trebuie defel ocolita in analizarea unor evolutii istorice atunci cand sunt insuficiente sursele :  strategia indirecta aplicata de China pentru intarzierea/ calmarea razboiului commercial utilizand jocul pe cele doua dosare dezvoltata cu SUA a dat gres. Mai sus observam ca presedintele Trump nu admite  altceva decat o   ”mare intelegere” cu Coreea de Nord- adica denuclearizarea totala, asadar  sanctionand preferinta pentru ruperea legaturii dintre cele doua dosare. Dar, cum a considerat necesar sa-l informeze pe omologul sau utilizand contul propriu de  twitter, respectul pentru Kim ramane la fel de mare si nu  sisteaza  comunicarea cu Pyongyang-ul.  Linia asumata se poate considera ca o tentativa  a Washingtonului de a crea o falie intre cei doi aliati est- asiatici  si curand Trump va avea un raspuns de la  Pyongyang.

Mai mult,  la o luna de la aceasta decizie , care consemna si decizia de a inaspri sanctiunile SUA  impotriva statului comunist, in dosarul tarifelor intervine cea dintai mare criza . 
    Mai intai a fost salva de prevenire a Chinei  a fos lansata  de presedintele Trump la 8 mai 2019: 
“@realDonaldTrump
The reason for the China pullback & attempted renegotiation of the Trade Deal is the sincere HOPE that they will be able to “negotiate” with Joe Biden or one of the very weak Democrats, and thereby continue to ripoff the United States (($500 Billion a year)) for years to come....
3:48 PM · May 8, 2019· 

@realDonaldTrump
....Guess what, that’s not going to happen! China has just informed us that they (Vice-Premier) are now coming to the U.S. to make a deal. We’ll see, but I am very happy with over $100 Billion a year in Tariffs filling U.S. coffers...great for U.S., not good for China! “  
 


    Apoi a fost lansata ceea ce putem numi a fi  ofensiva decisiva in acest razboi al tarifelor comerciale  intre cele dcoua mari puteri aflate Iin competitie. In 11 consemnari pe contul de  twitter in ziua de 10 mai 2020    presedintele Trump  isi expune propria pozitie : 
1.    “We have lost 500 Billion Dollars a year, for many years, on Crazy Trade with China. NO MORE! [Twitter for iPhone] 
2.    May 10, 2019 06:22:22 AM....The process has begun to place additional Tariffs at 25% on the remaining 325 Billion Dollars. The U.S. only sells China approximately 100 Billion Dollars of goods & products, a very big imbalance. With the over 100 Billion Dollars in Tariffs that we take in, we will buy..... [Twitter for iPhone] 
3.    May 10, 2019 06:22:22 AM....agricultural products from our Great Farmers, in larger amounts than China ever did, and ship it to poor & starving countries in the form of humanitarian assistance. In the meantime we will continue to negotiate with China in the hopes that they do not again try to redo deal! [Twitter for iPhone] 
4.    May 10, 2019 06:22:22 AM  Tariffs will bring in FAR MORE wealth to our Country than even a phenomenal deal of the traditional kind. Also, much easier & quicker to do. Our Farmers will do better, faster, and starving nations can now be helped. Waivers on some products will be granted, or go to new source! [Twitter for iPhone] 
5.    May 10, 2019 06:22:22 AM....If we bought 15 Billion Dollars of Agriculture from our Farmers, far more than China buys now, we would have more than 85 Billion Dollars left over for new Infrastructure, Healthcare, or anything else. China would greatly slow down, and we would automatically speed up! [Twitter for iPhone] 
6.    May 10, 2019 06:22:21 AM Tariffs will bring in FAR MORE wealth to our Country than even a phenomenal deal of the traditional kind. Also, much easier & quicker to do. Our Farmers will do better, faster, and starving nations can now be helped. Waivers on some products will be granted, or go to new source! [Twitter for iPhone] 
7.    May 10, 2019 05:53:56 AM....agricultural products from our Great Farmers, in larger amounts than China ever did, and ship it to poor & starving countries in the form of humanitarian assistance. In the meantime we will continue to negotiate with China in the hopes that they do not again try to redo deal! [Twitter for iPhone] 
8.    May 10, 2019 05:53:56 AM Tariffs will bring in FAR MORE wealth to our country than even a phenomenal deal of the traditional kind. Also, much easier & quicker to do. Our Farmers will do better, faster, and starving nations can now be helped. Waivers on some products will be granted, or go to new source! [Twitter for iPhone] 
9.    May 10, 2019 05:53:56 AM....If we bought 15 Billion Dollars of Agriculture from our Farmers, far more than China buys now, we would have more than 85 Billion Dollars left over for new Infrastructure, Healthcare, or anything else. China would greatly slow down, and we would automatically speed up! [Twitter for iPhone] 
10.    May 10, 2019 05:53:55 AM Talks with China continue in a very congenial manner - there is absolutely no need to rush - as Tariffs are NOW being paid to the United States by China of 25% on 250 Billion Dollars worth of goods & products. These massive payments go directly to the Treasury of the U.S....... [Twitter for iPhone] 
11.    May 10, 2019 05:53:55 AM....The process has begun to place additional Tariffs at 25% on the remaining 325 Billion Dollars. The U.S. only sells China approximately 100 Billion Dollars of goods & products, a very big imbalance. With the over 100 Billion Dollars in Tariffs that we take in, we will buy..... [Twitter for iPhone]”   

Evident ca ofensiva declansata de catre presedintele Trump pe twitter-ul propriu a imprimat cursul de evolutie al razboiul tarifar. Astfel:

“May 10, 2019 – /…/US increases tariffs on US$200 billion worth of Chinese goods (List 3) from 10 percent to 25 percent, as the US and China fail to reach a deal following the end of the first day of the eleventh round of high-level trade talks. The tariff increase will be effective from May 10, 2019 at 12:01 am (EST), with goods leaving from China to the US before midnight still taxed at the previous 10 percent rate/…/. In response, China’s Ministry of Commerce releases a statement announcing that it “deeply regrets” the tariffs and that ‘necessary countermeasures’ will be taken.
May 13, 2019 –/…/ China announces that it will increase tariffs on US$ 60 billion worth of US goods from June 1, 2019, in response to the tariff increases imposed by the US on May 10. /…/Alongside tariff increases, the State Council Customs Tariff Committee have also launched a tariff exemption system for certain eligible products. /…/On a trial basis, the document allows imported US products to be temporarily exempted from additional tariffs; tariffs can be refunded for the eligible products that have already been taxed. The USTR also announces that they will hold a public hearing on June 17, 2019 on the possibility of imposing 25 percent tariffs on a further US$300 billion worth of Chinese imports, including cellphones and laptops.
May 16, 2019 – US places Huawei on its ‘entity list’, banning it from purchasing from US companies
The US Department of Commerce announces the addition of Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd and its affiliates on its ‘entity list’, which effectively bans US companies from selling to the Chinese telecommunications company without US government approval.
May 31, 2019 –/…/China announces that it will establish its very own unreliable entities list in retaliation to the US’ entity list. The unreliable list will include foreign enterprises, organizations, and individuals that do not obey market rules, violate contracts, and block, cut off supply for non-commercial reasons, or severely damage the legitimate interests of Chinese companies.
June 1, 2019 – /…./Tariffs of 25 percent, 20 percent, and 10 percent, which were first announced on May 13, 2019 are now in effect on US$ 60 billion worth of American goods exported to China. /…/Separately, China announces that it has opened an official investigation into US shipping company FedEx for diverting packages from Japan, bound for China – to the US.”

    Urmatoarea ‘miscare’ a Beijingului a fost publicarea , la 2 iunie, a unei ‘carti albe’  privind modul de desfasurare de pana atunci a ‘razboiului commercial cu SUA. Pe scurt,  pozitia Chinei 

25 aprilie 2020

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